What is Obesity? How does it affect BMI(Body Mass Index)?
Obesity and overweight are like delima all over the world. It is due to the increase of fat cells in the body. To diagnose obesity, doctors measure BMI or body mass index. Obesity is a cosmetic concern and a medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases or health problems. According to WHO, obesity has tripled worldwide since 1975. In 2016, around 1.9 billion adults of age 18 years or above were overweight, of which 650 million were diagnosed with obesity. In 2016, 39% of adults aged 18 years or above were heavy, and 13% were diagnosed with obesity.
Due to the increase of the global pandemic in 2020, 39 million children of age five and below were obese and overweight. About 340 million children aged between 5-19 were obese and overweight. Obesity means having too much body fat. It is way more different of overweight. Increased weight may be from increased fat, muscle, bone, or body water means the weight is greater than the considered BMI.
Obesity occurs when you consume more than usual calories. The balance between calories out and calories is different in every person. Factors like overeating, not being physically active, genetic makeup, or eating heavy fat foods are the prime causes of obesity. Obesity gives you a risk of heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and diabetes. If you have symptoms of obesity, losing weight up to 5% to 10% can prevent signs of this disease.
BMI and its relation with overweight and obesity
BMI or body mass index is a weight and height index primarily used to screen the symptoms of obesity and overweight. BMI gives the most valuable measures of obesity and overweight in both males and females and all ages of adults. It is a rough measurement because it sometimes does not respond to every person’s same degree of fatness.
Overweight is a BMI more than or equal to 25, and obesity is BMI more than 30.
Age under five years
Overweight is BMI more than two, and obesity is BMI more than three standard deviations above the WHO Child Growth Standards.
Age between 5-19 years
Overweight is BMI more than one standard deviation above the WHO Growth Reference median, and Obesity is BMI more than two standard deviations above WHO Growth median.
Reasons for Obesity
There is a metabolic, behavioral, hormonal, and genetic influence on your body weight. Obesity primarily occurs when the intake of calories is more than you burn by exercises or daily activities. Body store these surplus calories as fat. Calories diet in the people of U.S. is too high from high-calorie beverages and fast food. People diagnosed with obesity get hungry soon, eat more due to anxiety and stress. People living in western countries have jobs that are not too physically demanding, so they cannot burn enough calories.
You can also get obese due to genes. If both of your parents are obese, there is a high chance of you getting obese. For example, one of the genetic causes of obesity is the deficiency of leptin. It is a hormone in the fat cells and the placenta. It controls weight by providing signals to the mind to eat less when it stores too much fat.
Types of obesity
Obesity varies from person to person, so it is categorized in many forms like-
- Food Obesity- It is the most common type of obesity all over the world. It occurs due to the excessive intake of sugars and high calories food. To control it, include 30 minutes of exercise in your daily schedule and try to decrease the portion of the food.
- The thickness of the nervous stomach- This type of obesity occurs due to anxiety, depression, or stress.
- Obesity due to gluten- This type of obesity is commonly found in women or adolescents during menopause and hormonal imbalance.
- Venous Circulation Obesity– It is a genetically inherited obesity that occurs during the time of pregnancy and is found in people who have swollen legs
How to treat obesity? Treatment and ways to deal with it.
The safest way to treat obesity is to eat healthily and do regular calorie-burning exercises. Eat a calorie-controlled and balanced diet as your physician recommend or your dietician. You can also join any local weight loss camp. Include activities like jogging, playing outdoor games, dancing, or swimming in your daily routine. Avoid such events where there is a high chance of overeating.
Alone change in lifestyle will not help you reduce weight; you will also need medication and treatment to overcome obesity. You take a medicine called Adipex to treat obesity. It is a prescription-based medicine that reduces your appetite, increases the body’s energy, and works in a different part of the brain to reduce weight. Or, you can take other drugs prescribed by your physician.
There are many weight loss surgeries to reduce weight. It works by reducing the number of calories in the body. There are primarily two types of weight loss surgery.
- Restriction- In this procedure, the size of the stomach is reduced. It helps you eat less, only to satisfy your appetite.
- Bypass surgery- It is the most common surgery used to reduce weight. A part of the intestine is bypassed that helps your body to absorb fewer calories from the food.
Need Prevention from Obesity? But How??
In children and teens
Young people have a high chance of becoming obese or overweight because of the stress they overeat sometimes. A lazy lifestyle and genes play a significant role in weight gain. These tips will help to prevent obesity.
- Change the family eating habits and activities rather than focusing on the weight of the child.
- Please encourage them to do physical activities.
- Children should have 60 minutes of exercise or other physical activities every day. It promotes maintaining weight.
- Be an idle role model for your child. Engage yourself in physical activities and exercise to encourage your child to do the same.
- Tell your child to eat only when they feel hunger.
- Allow only 1 to 2 hours daily to watch T.V. or computer.
- Keep only fat-free food, fruit, and milk in the refrigerator instead high calories food.
- Encourage your child to drink water rather than soft drinks.
- Keep a proper schedule of what you ate, where you ate, and how you feel before and after eating.
- Include Whole wheat foods in your diets, such as brown bread and brown rice.
- Avoid eating processed food made with corn syrup, refined sugar, and flour.
- Eat only 5 to 9 servings of vegetables and fruits.
- Decrease the portion of food.
- Aim for one hour of physical activity daily like walking, jogging, and other physical exercises.
- Include meditation, yoga, and other relaxing therapies for the mend peace. Sometimes people overeat or gain extra weight due to high stress. A relaxed mind will help you follow your diet correctly and make your treatment more accessible.
- Always foods by checking their nutrient level. Consume only highly nutritious food and beverages.